Language Alter Ego

Literature review on multilingualism

Here are some of the materials I strongly recommend you read if you are interested in multilingualism and multiculturalism.

  1. Sapir, E. In Mandesbaum D.G., editor. Culture, language and Personality: Selected Essays. California: University of California Press; 1970
  2. Salzmann, Z. Language, Culture and Society. An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. USA: Westview Press; 1998
  3. Sapir, E. 1929. Cited in Salzmann, Z. Language, Culture and Society. An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. USA: Westview Press; 1998
  4. Wardhaugh, R. An introduction to sociolinguistics (Fourth Ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers; 2002
  5. Baciu, Sorin. Culture. An Awareness Raising Approach. Fifth edition. Bucharest: Cavallioti; 2013
  6. Rosado, C. Toward a definition of multiculturalism [Internet]. 1996. Available from: [Accessed: 2021:04-10]
  7. Cutler, J. The cross-cultural communication trainer’s manual. 2 vols. UK: Routledge; 2005
  8. Oksaar, E. Multilingualism and Multiculturalism from the Linguist’s Point of View. Torsten, H., Opper, S., editors. Multicultural and Multilingual Education in Immigrant Countries. Volume 38. Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press; 1982. 181 p. 17-34
  9. Li, W. Research perspectives on bilingualism and multilingualism. Li, W., Moyer, M., editors. The Blackwell handbook of research methods on bilingualism and multilingualism; 2008. 3-17. Oxford, UK: Blackwell
  10. European Commission. Final report: High level group on multilingualism. Luxembourg: European Communities [Internet]. 2007. Available from [Accessed 2021-05-09]
  11. Cenoz, Jasone. The influence of bilingualism on third language acquisition: Focus on multilingualism. Language Teaching. 2013; 46. 1 - 16. DOI: 10.1017/S0261444811000218
  12. Savignon, Sandra J. Communicative Competence. Teaching Grammar. 2017; DOI:
  13. Yule, George. Pragmatics. UK: Oxford University Press; 1996
  14. Dragusin, Denisa. Politeness across Cultures: (In)Directness in English and Romanian, Interculturalité et Défi Pragmatiques. La Francopolyphonie 9. 2014; vol. 1, 107-116
  15. Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation; 1989/
  16. Reiter, R. M. Linguistic Politeness in Britain and Uruguay. A Contrastive Study of Requests and Apologies. Pragmatics & Beyond New Series. 2000; 83, xviii, 225 pp. John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI:
  17. Sifianou, Maria & Antonopoulou, E. Politeness in Greece: The politeness of involvement. Politeness in Europe. 2005; 263-276
  18. Rinnert, Carol, Kobayashi, Hiroe. Requestive hints in Japanese and English, Journal of Pragmatics. 1993; Volume 31, Issue 9, 1173-1201. DOI:
  19. Weizman, E. Requestive hints. S. Blum-Kulka, J. House & G. Kasper, editors. Cross-cultural pragmatics. 1989; 71-96, Norwood, NJ: Ablex
  20. Zhan, K. The strategies of politeness in the Chinese language. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California; 1992
  21. Zhang, Y. Indirectness in Chinese requesting. Kasper, G., editor. Pragmatics of Chinese as native and target language. 1995; 69-118. Honolulu, Hawaii: Journal of China University of Science and Technology Vol.61-2015.01 195, University of Hawaii Press
  22. Wong, L., & Song, M. Cross cultural communication. Frankfurt am Main, NY: Peter Lang; 2000
  23. Antoniou, Kyriakos, Grohmann, Kleanthes K., Kambanaros, MariaKatsos, Napoleon. Does multilingualism confer an advantage for pragmatic abilities? 37th Boston University Child Language Development; 2013, Massachusetts, USA. Available at:
  24. Siegal, M., Matsuo, A., Pond, C., & Otsu, Y. Bilingualism and cognitive development: Evidence from scalar implicatures. Proceedings of the Eighth Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Otsu, Y. editor. 2007; Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo
  25. Goetz, P. J. The effects of bilingualism on theory of mind development. Bilingualism Language and Cognition. 2003; 6(1), 1-16
  26. Kovács, Á. M. Early bilingualism enhances mechanisms of false-belief reasoning. Developmental science. 2008; 12(1), 48-54
  27. Cain, E. Multicultural teacher education: Guidelines for implementation [Internet]. 1980. Available from: [Accessed 2021-04-23]
  28. Dufva, Hannele, et al. Languages as objects of learning: language learning as a case of multilingualism. Apples – Journal of Applied Language Studies. 2011; Vol. 5, 1, 109-124
  29. Amkieh, Zeena. Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in the Classroom [Internet]. 2014. Available from: [Accessed 2021-04-23]
  30. Peace Corps, Culture Matters: The Peace Corps Cross-Cultural Workshop. Accessed 9/5/12
  31. Ting-Toomey, Stella. Communicating Across Cultures. New York: The Guilford Press; 1999
  32. Stavans, Anat & Webman Shafran, Ronit. The pragmatics of requests and refusals in multilingual settings. International Journal of Multilingualism. 2017; 15. 1-20. DOI:10.1080/14790718.2017.1338708
  33. King, Lid. Cambridge English Perspectives The Impact of Multilingualism on Global Education and Language Learning. The Languages Company [Internet]. 2017. Available from: [Accessed 2021-04-23]
  34. Crystal, David, editor. Penguin Pocket On This Day. London: Penguin; 2006
  35. Williams, Conor. 2015. Cited in King, Lid. Cambridge English Perspectives The Impact of Multilingualism on Global Education and Language Learning. The Languages Company [Internet]. 2017. Available from: [Accessed 2021-04-23]
  36. ICF Consulting Services Ltd. European Commission. Language teaching and learning in multilingual classrooms [Internet]. 2015. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available from [Accessed 2021-05-09]
  37. Ball, J. Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in the early years, Analytical review commissioned by the UNESCO Education Sector; 2011
  38. Wilton, Antje. 3. Multilingualism and foreign language learning. Karlfried Knapp and Barbara Seidlhofer, editors. Handbook of Foreign Language Communication and Learning. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton; 2009, pp. 45-78. DOI:
  39. de la Fuente, Anahí Alba and Lacroix, Hugues. Multilingual learners and foreign language acquisition: Insights into the effects of prior linguistic knowledge. Language Learning in Higher Education, vol. 5, no. 1. 2015; 45-57. DOI:
  40. Gas, Susana. Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations. Language Learning. A Journal of Research in Language Studies. 1979; volume 29, issue 2, 327-344. DOI:
  41. Kecskés I. Multilingualism: Pragmatic Aspects. In: Keith Brown, editor-in-Chief. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, Second Edition, volume 8, 2006; pp. 371-375. Oxford: Elsevier
  42. Murphy, Shirin. Second Language Transfer During Third Language Acquisition. Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics. 2003. DOI:
  43. Selinker, L., & Baumgartner-Cohen, B. Multiple language acquisition: ‘Damn it, why can’t I keep these two languages apart?’ M. Bensoussan, I. Kreindler, & E. Aogáin, editors. Multilingualism and language learning: 8, 2. Language, culture and curriculum. 1995; 115-123. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters
  44. Shanon, B. Faulty language selection in polyglots. Language and cognitive processes. 1991; 6 (4), 339-350
  45. Schwartz, B.D. and Sprouse, R.A. L2 cognitive states and the full transfer/full access model. Second Language Research 12. 1996; 40-72
  46. Bardel, C. & Falk, Y. The role of the second language in third language acquisition: The case of Germanic syntax. Second Language Research. 2007; 23(4): 459-484
  47. Vainikka, A. and Young-Scholten, M. Direct access to X-theory: evidence from Korean and Turkish adults learning German. In Hoekstra, T. and Schwartz, B., editors. Language acquisition studies in generative grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 1994; 265-316
  48. Vainikka, A. and Young-Scholten, M. 1996: Gradual development of L2 phrase structure. Second Language Research, 12, 7-39
  49. Eubank, L.: On the transfer of parametric values in L2 development. Language Acquisition 3. 1993/94; 183-208
  50. Eubank, L.: Optionality and the initial state in L2 development. Hoekstra, T. and Schwartz, B., editors. Language acquisition studies in generative grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 1994; 369-388
  51. Clahsen, H. and Muysken, P. The availability of universal grammar to adult and child learners: a study of the acquisition of German word order. Second Language Research 2. 1986; 93-119
  52. Clahsen, H. and Muysken, P: The UG paradox in L2 acquisition. Second Language Research 5. 1989; 1-29
  53. Epstein, S., Flynn, S. and Martohardjono, G. The strong continuity hypothesis: some evidence concerning functional categories in adult L2 acquisition. Flynn, S., Matohardjono, G. and O’Neil, W., editors. The generative study of language acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1998 61-77
  54. Ismaili, Merita. Teaching English in a Multilingual Setting. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2007; vol. 199, 2015. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.505
  55. Hofstede, G. Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1); 2013. DOI:
  56. Neusser, Hannah. Source Language of Lexical Transfer in Multilingual Learners. Stockholm: Stockholm University; 2017
  57. Szubko-Sitarek, W. Multilingual Lexical Recognition in the Mental Lexicon of Third Language Users. 2015, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. DOI:
  58. Honna, Nobuyuki. English as a Multicultural Language in Asia and Intercultural Literacy. Intercultural Communication Studies XIV: 2, 2005
  59. Higby, Eve, Kim, Jungna, and Obler, Loraine K. Multilingualism and the Brain. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 2013; 33, 68-101, Cambridge University Press. DOI:10.1017/S0267190513000081